Understanding The Bond Market

Grip Invest
Grip Invest
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Mar 26, 2024
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    Bonds are an essential part of growing financial markets. Data from SEBI and CCIL show that the value of the   bond market has increased by 77% in the past five years, rising from INR 108.8 lakh crore in FY18 to INR 192.4 lakh crore in FY 2023.

    According to a report from CRISIL Ratings, India's corporate bond market (22% of the total bond market) is projected to grow significantly, increasing from INR 43 trillion in FY23 to a range of  INR 100-120 trillion by FY 2030 . This growth is expected at a CAGR of 9% over the coming years.

    Even so, many people still do not understand the nuances of this market. This detailed blog provides an overview of the bond market, including information on how it works and the types of bond investment opportunities.

    What Is Bond Market?

    The bond market is often called the debt market or fixed-income market. People can buy and sell debt securities in the bond market. Investors lend money to borrowers, usually governments, municipalities, corporations, or other organisations, through securities called bonds at a predetermined rate. The loan has an interest and principal repayment schedule set by the issuer. 

    Buying And Trading Bonds

    In India, investors can buy and sell bonds in two markets. In the primary market, the issuer issues new bonds directly to buyers. In the secondary market, securities already sold in the primary market are bought by investors, usually via brokers. 

    Online bond platform providers (OBPP) have emerged as a reliable and user-friendly option for secondary bond markets. They make diversification accessible to individuals without extensive knowledge of the Indian financial markets.

    What Is The Bond Market And How Does It Work?

    Bond prices move in response to market forces like supply and demand and outside factors like interest rates, inflation, issuer’s creditworthiness, and the economy. Bonds are available to investors in various maturities, rates, and risk levels. 

    Read more on How Economic Factors Influence Stock And Corporate Bond Prices?

    Interest payments and capital appreciation are the two main ways bond market investors profit. Pre-determined Interest is paid to bondholders on bonds at regular intervals (monthly/quarterly/biannually/yearly). You can also make money off the bond if its value increases. 

    For example, you can earn INR 500 annually if you invest INR 10,000 in a bond yielding 5% interest. If the bond's value increases to INR 11,000, you can earn INR 1,000 by selling it. The bond market is lucrative for investors because of the interest and capital gains they receive.

    Types Of Bond Market

    Market analysts classify the bond market into several categories based on different criteria:

    1. Government Bond Market

    Both federal and state governments issue bonds to finance infrastructure projects and cover budget deficits. Investors see government bonds as low-risk investments as national guarantees back them. As of September 2023, the total market size for government bonds was $1.3 trillion. 

    2. Corporate Bond Market

    Corporations raise capital by issuing bonds to fund expansion plans, meet working capital needs, or refinance debt. As of September 2023, the size of the corporate bonds market was $0.6 trillion.

    Corporate bonds offer higher yields than government securities. But, they come with varying levels of credit risk. GRIP Invest offers exchange-listed, SEBI-regulated, and credit-rated corporate bonds starting at INR 1,000. You can earn between 10% and 14% pre-tax IRR. 

    3. Municipal Bond Market

    Municipalities issue bonds to finance public infrastructure projects like roads, bridges, and utilities. These emerging bonds carry the issuing municipality's credit risk, but they may offer some tax advantages to investors. 

    Types Of Bond Markets Based On The Type of Bond 

    In each bond market segment, investors find different bond types. These types have unique features.

    1. Fixed Rate Bonds

    These bonds pay a predefined fixed interest rate throughout maturity, giving investors a predictable fixed income. They become more appealing when prevailing interest rates are low. Investors might earn a substantially larger return with these bonds than other investment options, as their fixed interest rate could be higher than the existing market rates. 

    Furthermore, investors seeking stability and security in their investments may find the assurance of receiving a fixed income over time extremely beneficial in a low-interest-rate environment.

    2. Floating Rate Bonds

    floating-rate bond has an interest rate that changes regularly. The reference rate determines it. For example, the London Interbank Offer Rate (LIBOR) or the government bond yield are benchmarks. 

    3. No Coupon Bonds 

    These bonds do not pay interest at regular intervals. However, issuers pay less than their face value when they print them. As the bond nears maturity, investors receive rewards by appreciating its value.

    4. Perpetual Bonds

    Bonds without a set maturity date are called perpetual bonds or perpetual securities. These bonds continue to pay ongoing interest or coupon payments indefinitely, hence the term "perpetual." Because there is no fixed maturity date, perpetual bonds may offer higher interest rates than traditional bonds. This higher interest rate compensates investors for the indefinite period they hold the bond.

    5. Convertible Bonds

    Corporate bonds with the option to convert into a certain number of the issuer's equity shares or common stock are called convertible bonds. At certain intervals and for a certain price, bondholders can convert their bonds into shares of stock in the issuer.

    In addition to a guaranteed income stream until conversion, investors can benefit from the possibility of capital appreciation if the underlying company does well.

    6. Callable Bonds

    Bonds that can be redeemed or repurchased by the issuer before their maturity date are called callable bonds. Bond agreements sometimes contain a "call provision" that allows issuers to redeem their bonds at a specific price and on a particular date. 

    If the original bond's coupon rate is lower than the current interest rates, investors in callable bonds risk having to reinvest their money if the bond is redeemed early.

    How To Invest In The Bond Market?

    Investors can consider buying bonds as part of their diversified portfolio. You can purchase bonds as part of an ETF (Exchange-Traded Fund) or mutual fund. If you wish to purchase government bonds, you can buy them from a broker or as part of a fund from the government-issuing bond. 

    Like buying stocks, investors can purchase multiple corporate bonds through a bond broker. Investing in bonds through OBPPs is a secured and easy 3-step process:

    a. Login to a SEBI-compliant OBPP portal

    b. Complete your KYC

    c. Review the investment opportunities and invest


    The Indian bond market offers many investment opportunities. Investors can seek income, capital preservation, or portfolio diversification there. They can also understand the bond market's dynamics and use sound investment strategies. This will let them harness the potential of fixed-income securities and achieve their financial goals in a changing economy. Explore Grip Invest to stay updated on various high-yielding fixed-income investment options.

    Frequently Asked Questions On Bond Markets

    1. What are the three components of a bond?

    The three components of a bond are:

    1. Principal: This is the initial amount of money borrowed by the issuer. At maturity, the issuer must repay it to the bondholder.
    2. Interest Rate: The coupon rate is the annual interest payment the issuer makes to the bondholder. It is a percentage of the bond's face value.
    3. Maturity Date: This is the date on which the issuer must repay the principal to the bondholder. It marks the end of the bond's term.

    2. What is a bond with an example?

    A bond is a fixed-income investment. An investor lends money to a government, corporation, or city for a set period at a fixed interest rate. An example of a bond in India is the Sovereign Gold Bond. The RBI issues it to the investors on behalf of the  Indian government. They offer investors a fixed interest rate and the chance for capital growth linked to gold prices.

    3. Who issues bonds?

    Various entities in India issue bonds, including:

    1. Government: Both the central and state governments issue government bonds. They do this to finance fiscal deficits, infrastructure projects, and other spending needs.
    2. Corporations: Indian companies issue corporate bonds to raise capital for expansion, working capital, or debt refinancing.
    3. Municipalities: Local bodies, such as municipal corporations and municipalities, issue these bonds to fund local infrastructure projects.
    4. Financial Institutions: Banks, non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), and other financial institutions issue bonds to raise funds, lend, comply with regulatory requirements, and manage liquidity.

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    Happy Investing!

    Disclaimer - Investments in debt securities/municipal debt securities/securitised debt instruments are subject to risks including delay and/ or default in payment. Read all the offer related documents carefully. The investor is requested to take into consideration all the risk factors before the commencement of trading.
    This communication is prepared by Grip Broking Private Limited (bearing SEBI Registration No. INZ000312836 and NSE ID 90319) and/or its affiliate/ group company(ies) (together referred to as “Grip”) and the contents of this disclaimer are applicable to this document and any and all written or oral communication(s) made by Grip or its directors, employees, associates, representatives and agents. This communication does not constitute advice relating to investing or otherwise dealing in securities and is not an offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any securities. Grip does not guarantee or assure any return on investments and accepts no liability for consequences of any actions taken based on the information provided. For more details, please visit www.gripinvest.in

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